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Tutorial 3

The Basics - Part 2

Modify Toolbar

CAD drawings are rarely completed simply by drawing lines, circles etc. Most likely you will need to Modify these basic drawing objects in some way in order to create the image you need. intelliCAD provides a whole range of modify tools such as Move, Copy, Rotate and Mirror. As you can see, the command names are easily understandable. However, the way these commands work is not always obvious. This tutorial is designed to show you how all of the Modify commands work.

As is usual with intelliCAD, the Modify tools can be accessed in one of three ways, from the keyboard, from the pull-down menu and from the toolbar. All of the Modify tools are available from the Modify pull-down and the Modify toolbar. In each section below, the toolbar, pull-down and keyboard options are given. The method you choose is entirely up to you. Ultimately you will use the method that you feel most comfortable with or the one you find most efficient. intelliCAD allows great flexibility and there aren't any right or wrong ways of working. That said, it should be pointed out that the use of toolbars in intelliCAD is almost always quicker than any other method.

The Modify toolbar is usually displayed by default but if it is not already displayed, you can display it using the TOOLBAR command, View Toolbars… from the pull-down menu. When the Toolbar dialogue box (shown above) appears, simply check the box next to "Modify" in the toolbars list. Many CAD users work with the Modify toolbar permanently docked on their screen because it gives one-click access to all of the commands, making the drawing process much more efficient.

Erase

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyErase

Keyboard

ERASE

short-cut

E



The Erase command is one of the simplest intelliCAD commands and is one of the most used. The command erases (deletes) any selected object(s) from the drawing. Remember you can always get deleted objects back by typing U to undo, from the Standard toolbar or by using the OOPS command.

Command Sequence


Command : DELETE
Select entities to delete:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to delete:


If you simply want to erase the last object you created you can type L at the "Select objects" prompt. The last object will be highlighted and you can then select more objects or to end the command. See the "Object Selection" tutorial for more information on selecting objects.
 

Copy Object

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyCopy

Keyboard

COPY

short-cut

CP

 

The Copy command can be used to create one or more duplicates of any drawing object or objects which you have previously created. Copy is a very useful and time-saving command because you can create very complex drawing elements and then simply copy them as many times as you like.

 

Command Sequence


Command : COPY
Select entities to copy:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to copy:
Multiple/Vector/<Base point>:
Displacement point:


The multiple option allows you to create additional copies of the selected object(s) by picking as many new points as you like. To end a multiple copy, just hit the key.

 

Figure A

Figure  B

 

                                                    

 

Mirror

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyMirror

Keyboard

MIRROR

short-cut

MI

 

The Mirror command allows you to mirror selected objects in your drawing by picking them and then defining the position of an imaginary mirror line using two points.

 

Command Sequence


Command : Mirror
Start of mirror line:
End of mirror line:
Delete the original entities? <N> n


Notice that in the command sequence above, pressing the key when asked whether to "Delete source objects?" resulted in a "No" response. This is because "No" is the default option. intelliCAD always shows the default option within triangular brackets, in this case "<N>". Many intelliCAD commands offer default options. They are usually the most commonly used and you need only right-click and select "Enter" from the menu or press on the keyboard to accept them.

In order to create perfectly horizontal or vertical mirror lines use Ortho.
 

Parallel

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyParallel

Keyboard

Parallel

short-cut

O

 

Parallel or Offset as it is known in intelliCAD, is probably one of the most useful commands for constructing drawings. The Parallel command creates a new object parallel to or concentric with a selected object. The new object is drawn at a user defined distance (the offset) from the original and in a direction chosen by the user with a pick point. You can offset lines, arcs, circles, ellipses, 2D polylines, xlines, rays and planar splines.

 

Command Sequence
 

Command : _PARALLEL
Parallel: Through point/<Distance> <508.614>: 15
Select entity:
Both sides/<Side for parallel copy>:

 

The picture on the right shows the executed parallel function. It is created an offset or parallel line to the orginal shape. The offset was created on the inside on the inside of the original shape. There are a few options here as you can see from the command line example. You can choose to put the offset on the inside or outside of the orginal or both. Simple click on the inside or outside of the shape or type in both.
 

Array

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyArray

Keyboard

Array

short-cut

AR

 

The Array command makes multiple copies of selected objects in a rectangular matrix (columns and rows) or a polar (circular) pattern. When you click the array button it will bring up a window so you can specify the array. The button there is an object select button next to the Polar button that you can use to select all the entities you want to create an array of.

 

   

 

Rectangular Array - When creating rectangular arrays it is important to remember that new rows are created above the original object and new columns are created to the right of the original object. The resulting array is, therefore, always created with the original object in the bottom left hand position with respect to the current co-ordinate system.

 

Polar Array - The polar array works in a similar way to the rectangular array. The main difference is that rather than specifying the number and offset for rows and columns, you must specify a center point and the total number of objects in the array (including the original object).

 

All new objects created with the Array command will inherit the object properties of the original object.

Move

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyMove

Keyboard

Move

short-cut

M

 

The Move command works in a similar way to the Copy command except that no copy is made, the selected object(s) is simply moved from one location to another.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : MOVE
Select entities to move:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to move:
Entities in set: 2
Select entities to move:
Vector/<Base point>:
Displacement point:

Rotate

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyRotate

Keyboard

Rotate

short-cut

RO

 

The Rotate command allows an object or objects to be rotated about a point selected by the user. intelliCAD prompts for a second rotation point or an angle which can be typed at the keyboard.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : ROTATE
Select entities to rotate:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to rotate:
Rotation point:
Base angle/<Rotation angle>: 95

Scale

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyScale

Keyboard

Scale

short-cut

SC

 

 

The Scale command can be used to change the size of an object or group of objects. You are prompted for a pick point about which the selection set will be scaled. Scaling can then be completed by picking a second point (not always easy because it can sometimes be difficult to precisely control the scaling) or by entering a scale factor at the keyboard. For example a scale factor of 2 will double the size of the objects in the selection set and a factor of 0.5 will half them.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : SCALE
Select entities to scale:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to scale:
Base point:
Base scale/<Scale factor>: 10

 

If you want to scale an object precisely, it is much easier to enter a scale factor using the keyboard.
Note that the position of the new sized tree symbol is determined by the location of the base point. The base point, P2 has been picked to the upper right of the centre of the tree which resulted in the centre of the tree shifting to a lower left position. If the base point had been picked in the centre of the tree symbol, the tree would have remained in the same position. In theory the base point can be any point in the drawing area but for ease of control it is best to choose a known point so that the results are obvious.

 

Stretch

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyStretch

Keyboard

Stretch

short-cut

S

 

The Stretch command can be used to move one or more vertices of an object whilst leaving the rest of the object unchanged. In the example below, a rectangle has been stretched by moving one vertex to create an irregular shape.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : Stretch
Select entities to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon:
Opposite corner:
Entities in set: 2
Select entities to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon:
Base point or displacement:
Second point of displacement:

 

Trim

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyTrim

Keyboard

Trim

short-cut

TR

 

The Trim command can be used to trim a part of an object. In order to trim an object you must draw a second object which forms the "cutting edge". Cutting edges can be lines, xlines, rays, polylines, circles, arcs or ellipses. Blocks and text cannot be trimmed or used as cutting edges.

The Trim command, unlike most other modify commands requires that two separate object selections are made. The cutting edges are selected first (there can be one or more) and then the objects to be trimmed are selected. In the example above, the line is selected first because it forms the cutting edge and then the square and circle are selected.
The Trim command is slightly more complicated than many other modify commands. To get a better understanding of how it works, draw a square, circle and line as illustrated above and then follow the command sequence below. Don't forget to watch the command line at each stage of the process.

Notice that at each trimming step you are given the option to undo the previous trim. This can be very useful if you inadvertently pick the wrong object.

 

Command Line Example

 

Command : _TRIM
Select cutting entities for trim <ENTER to select all>:
Using all entities as trim boundary.
Edge mode/Fence/Projection/<Select entity to trim>:
Edge mode/Fence/Projection/Undo/<Select entity to trim>:



Extend

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyExtend

Keyboard

Extend

short-cut

EX

 

This command extends a line, polyline or arc to meet another drawing object (known as the boundary edge). In the illustration on the right, two lines (red) are extended to meet another line (cyan) which forms the boundary edge. This command works in a similar way to the Trim command, described above. Two selections are made, one for the boundary edge(s) and one for the object(s) to extend.

Lines and other objects can be extended in one of two directions. You can tell intelliCAD in which direction to extend by picking a point to the right or left of the midpoint respectively. intelliCAD does not intuitively know where the boundary edge lies so you must explicitly indicate the direction of extension by picking either one side or other of the midpoint.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : _EXTEND
Select boundary entities for extend <ENTER to select all>:
Entities in set: 1
Select boundary entities for extend <ENTER to select all>:
Entities in set: 2
Select boundary entities for extend <ENTER to select all>:
Entities in set: 3
Select boundary entities for extend <ENTER to select all>:
Edge mode/Fence/Projection/<Select entity to extend>:
Edge mode/Fence/Projection/Undo/<Select entity to extend>:

 

 

Edit Length

 

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyEdit Length

Keyboard

Editlen

short-cut

LEN

 

The Lengthen command can often be used instead of either the Trim or Extend commands. Indeed the end result is exactly the same. The Lengthen command can be used to either lengthen or shorten Lines, Arcs, open Polylines, elliptical Arcs and open Splines without the use of cutting or boundary edges.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : EDITLEN
Edit length: DYnamic/Increment/Percent/Total/<Select entity to list length>:
Current length: 262.3567
Edit length: DYnamic/Increment/Percent/Total/<Select entity to list length>: Increment
Angle/<Enter length increment (0)>: 500
Mode/<Select entity to change>:
Mode/Undo/<Select entity to change>:

 

The command sequence above demonstrates the use of the Dynamic Lengthen option which is probably the most useful for general purpose drafting. However, the other options are worth getting to know because they can save lots of time and effort.
The Total option allows you to change the total length of a line to any value that you specify. The Percent option allows you to change a line length using a percentage. For example, a value of 50 will result in a line one half the length of the original and a value of 200 will result in a line twice the length of the original. The Delta option can be used to extend or reduce the endpoint of a line by a given distance. The endpoint affected by the change is the one closest to the pick point when the object selection is made.

 

Break

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyBreak

Keyboard

Break

short-cut

BR

 

The Break command enables you to break (remove part of) an object by defining two break points. In the illustration below, a corner of a rectangle has been removed. The Break command can be used with lines, polylines, circles, arcs ellipses, splines, xlines and rays. When you break an object, you can either select the object using the first break point and then pick the second break point, or you can select the object and then pick the two break points.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : BREAK
Select entity to break:
First break point/<Second break point>:

 

Sometimes you may want to select the object first and then specify the two break points. If this is the case, use the "First point" option to specify the first break point. By default, intelliCAD assumes that the point used to select the object is the first break point. This is often confusing for new users.
 

It may sometimes be necessary to break a line into two without removing any part of it. In this case, simply pick the first and second break points in the same position.
 

Chamfer

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyChamfer

Keyboard

Chamfer

short-cut

CHA

 

The Chamfer command enables you to create a chamfer between any two non-parallel lines as in the illustration below or any two adjacent polyline segments. Usually, the Chamfer command is used to set the chamfer distances before drawing the chamfer. Follow the command sequence below where the chamfer distances are changed to 20 before the chamfer is made.

Command Sequence


Command : CHAMFER
Chamfer (dist1=10, dist2=10): Settings/Polyline/<Select first entity>:
Directional/<Select second entity>:


The chamfer is made and the command ends.

 

Notice from the command sequence that there are a number of options which can be used to control the way the Chamfer command behaves. The Polyline option can be used to chamfer all vertexes of a polyline simultaneously. The Distance option allows you to specify the two chamfer distances. Angle allows the angle between the first line and the chamfer to be specified. Trim is used to control whether the original lines are trimmed to the chamfer or remain as they are. Finally, Method is used to toggle the command between Distance and Angle mode. When Angle mode is used, the chamfer is defined using one distance and an angle rather than two distances.
 

Fillet

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyFillet

Keyboard

Fillet

short-cut

PS

 

The Fillet command is a very useful tool which allows you to draw an arc between two intersecting lines or adjacent polyline segments. You first need to use the command to set the required radius and then a second time to select the two lines.

 

Command Sequence

 

Command : FILLET
Fillet (radius=10): Settings/Polyline/<Select first entity>:
Directional/Select second entity:

 

The Fillet command can also be used to fillet arcs and circles. The "Polyline" option also allows you to fillet all vertices of a polyline with a single command. It's worth experimenting with this command, it can save you lots of time and enables you to construct shapes which otherwise would be quite difficult.

For example, you can easily create the lozenge shape shown on the right from a simple rectangle. Since intelliCAD rectangles are just closed polylines, you can use the Polyline option of the Fillet command to fillet all polyline vertexes simultaneously. Try this for yourself; draw a rectangle and then follow the command sequence below.

 

Command : FILLET
Fillet (radius=10): Settings/Polyline/<Select first entity>: Polyline
Select 2D polyline to fillet:

 


Explode

 

Toolbar

Modify

Pull-down

ModifyExplode

Keyboard

Explode

short-cut

X

 

The Explode command is used to "explode" single objects back to their constituent parts. In other words, the command is used to return blocks, polylines etc. (which may be composed of a number of component objects) back to their individual component parts. The change has no visible effect.

 

Command Sequence Example

 

Command : EXPLODE

Select entities to explode:
Opposite corner:
Entities in set: 1
Select entities to explode:

 

 

                                                                                    

 

 

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